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The cause of keratoconus is not fully understood, although there are indications it may be a genetic condition. Continuous or vigorous eye rubbing in susceptible individuals may lead to the development of keratoconus and should be avoided.
Keratoconus has also been linked to other medical conditions, such as glaucoma, hay fever and sleep apnoea.
Keratoconus is usually considered a rare condition, with previous studies suggesting it affects 1 in every 2000 people. However, a recent Australian study indicates that the incidence may be much higher – 1 in 84.1
Both sexes are equally affected and most cases are diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 30 years.
Generally yes, although one eye tends to be worse than the other.
Severe cases may lead to legal blindness, but it’s not typical for a person to become totally blind from this condition. Current treatment options allow people with keratoconus to lead relatively normal lives. Corneal transplantations are reserved for patients who no longer respond to other treatments.
Mas Tur et al. A review of keratoconus: Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and genetics. Surv Ophthalmol. Nov-Dec 2017;62(6):770-783. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2017.06.009. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
Chan et al. Prevalence of keratoconus based on Scheimpflug imaging: the Raine study. Ophthalmology. 2020 Aug 26;S0161-6420(20)30838-1. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.08.020. ↩︎
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