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  • Keratoconus is a progressive, degenerative disorder characterised by thinning of the cornea – its round, dome shape starts to bulge and become cone-like instead. This process of thinning and re-shaping is termed corneal ectasia. Keratoconus is one type of corneal ectasia.

    The cornea helps to bend (refract) and focus light rays onto the retina. Any abnormality in its shape leads to visual problems. These include blurred vision and difficulties seeing objects at a distance and close-up. The more advanced the keratoconus, the more severe the visual distortion.

    The cause of keratoconus is not completely understood, but it appears that there may be a genetic component. This potential association is the subject of current studies. Avoid continuous or vigorous rubbing of the eyes, which may also be a trigger for the condition. Keratoconus has also been linked to other medical conditions, such as glaucoma, hay fever and sleep apnoea.

    Keratoconus generally progresses faster in younger patients, which highlights the importance of early detection and treatment.

    • Sensitivity to light
    • Seeing halos or ‘ghosting’
    • Distorted, blurry vision
    • Difficulty driving at night
    • Double vision in one eye or noticeably worse vision in one eye
    • Eye strain, eye pain
    • Headaches
  • What causes keratoconus?

    The cause is not fully understood, although there are indications it may be a genetic condition. Continuous or vigorous eye rubbing in susceptible individuals may lead to the development of keratoconus and should be avoided.

    Keratoconus has also been linked to other medical conditions, such as glaucoma, hay fever and sleep apnoea.

    How common is keratoconus?

    Keratoconus is usually considered a rare condition, with previous studies suggesting it affects 1 in every 2000 people. However, a recent Australian study indicates that the incidence may be much higher – 1 in 84.

    Both sexes are equally affected and most cases are diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 30 years.

    Does keratoconus affect both eyes?

    Generally yes, although one eye tends to be worse than the other.

    Does keratoconus cause blindness?

    Severe cases may lead to legal blindness, but it's not typical for a person to become totally blind from this condition. Current treatment options allow people with keratoconus to lead relatively normal lives. Corneal transplantations are reserved for patients who no longer respond to other treatments.

    Does Medicare cover any of the cost of treating keratoconus?

    A Medicare rebate is available for one of the treatment options for keratoconus – corneal collagen cross-linking surgery. Please contact your nearest Vision Eye Institute clinic for further information.

    Do you offer payment plans?

    Payment plans can be used to access consultations, treatment and surgery at all Vision Eye Institute Clinics and Vision Hospital Group day surgeries.

    Vision Eye Institute patients can access a plan to suit their needs through one of the following options.*

    • LatitudePay for services up to $1,000 – interest free, ten weekly payments, no account fees, fast approval

    • LatitudePay+ for services up to $10,000 – interest free, flexible repayment period (6 or 12 months), low monthly account fee, fast approval

    *Approved customers only. Before applying for any form of credit, always read the full terms and conditions.


    For a full list of references, visit the keratoconus FAQ page.

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Diagnosing keratoconus

Your ophthalmologist may use a number of tools to make a diagnosis of keratoconus, including:

  • A slit lamp, which combines an intense light source with a microscope to examine your eyes
  • A keratometer to measure the curvature of the cornea
  • Corneal topography, which creates a 3D model of the cornea to detect any subtle changes.

Treating keratoconus

In the early stages of keratoconus, the only treatment required may be prescription glasses to correct your vision. Unfortunately, this is a progressive condition so your vision will eventually deteriorate, sometimes quite rapidly.

Below are some of the other treatments your ophthalmologist may recommend.

Contact lenses

Rigid (hard) or hybrid contact lenses may be prescribed and are particularly effective in treating keratoconus for a period of time. These are made from a special material that allows the contact lens to mask the abnormal shape of the cornea and improve vision. However, contact lenses do not stop the condition from progressing and will eventually become ineffective.1

Corneal ring segments

This type of keratoconus surgery involves the insertion of clear plastic segments into the cornea. These segments are designed to reshape the front surface of the eye, thus correcting refractive errors caused by keratoconus.

Corneal ring segments are reserved for advanced cases of corneal ectasia, where the patient’s vision is not correctable with glasses or contact lenses.

Corneal collagen cross-linking

Corneal cross-linking surgery can effectively stop the progress of keratoconus.2 It involves a combination of collagen and riboflavin (vitamin B2), which are activated by ultraviolet light to significantly strengthen the rigidity of the cornea.

First, the top layer of the cornea (epithelium) is gently removed. The cornea is then saturated with collagen and riboflavin, and UV light applied to activate the solution. This causes the collagen strands to bond across the cornea and strengthen it. Early treatment with collagen cross-linking can slow or sometimes even stop the progression of keratoconus.

The procedure takes approximately one hour and is performed as an outpatient procedure in the clinic. Patients usually experience some mild discomfort in the immediate post-operative period.

Following treatment, the patient is fitted with a contact lens that stays in place for up to three days. Antibiotic drops are applied to the treated eye until the surface of the eye has healed. This is followed by steroid drops for approximately 5 to 6 weeks.

Corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus attracts a Medicare rebate. Contact your nearest Vision Eye Institute clinic for more information.

Corneal transplantation (keratoplasty)

This will only be suggested if all other treatments options have been exhausted. About 10–20% of patients eventually require corneal transplantation.3

There are two types of corneal transplants – partial-thickness and full-thickness (or penetrating). It is usually the latter that is recommended for patients with keratoconus.

A corneal transplant is a complex procedure and requires admission to a day surgery. It is generally performed under local anaesthetic, with the option of a sedative. During the procedure, your surgeon will cut out the abnormal section of the cornea and replace it with donor cornea, which will be stitched into place. The stitches will be removed at a later date. Your own corneal cells will gradually grow and fuse to the donor tissue. Full recovery from this type of keratoconus surgery can take up to a year.


1. Keratoconus Australia. Contact lenses & spectacles [Internet]. Australia: Keratoconus Australia; [date unknown] [cited 2021 Jan 27]. Available from: https://www.keratoconus.org.au/treatments/contact-lenses/
2. Keratoconus Australia. Corneal crosslinking [Internet]. Australia: Keratoconus Australia; [date unknown] [cited 2021 Jan 27]. Available from: https://www.keratoconus.org.au/treatments/corneal-collagen-crosslinking/
3. Godefrooij et al. Nationwide reduction in the number of corneal transplantations for keratoconus following the implementation of cross-linking. Acta Ophthalmol. 2016 Nov;94(7):675-678. doi: 10.1111/aos.13095. Epub 2016 May 23. doi: 10.1111/aos.13095

The information on this page is general in nature. All medical and surgical procedures have potential benefits and risks. Consult your ophthalmologist for specific medical advice.

Keratoconus More news & Resources

Date last reviewed: 2022-01-25 | Date for next review: 2024-01-25

IMPORTANT: If you are concerned about your eyes and require an urgent consultation, DO NOT use this form. Please call one of our clinics during office hours or contact your nearest emergency department.

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